has provided much of the stimulus for the elaboration of various "migration
wave" theories, inspired by the tracing of cultural influences from Southeast
Asia, India, the Middle East, and China. One of the most elaborate of these
was developed by anthropologist H.O. Beyer in the early 20th century, and
involved eight waves of prehistoric H. Sapiens immigrants:
B.P. Negritos arrive.
B.P. semi-dwarf Mongoloids "like Ainu."
B.P. "Indonesian" first wave, from SE Asia.
B.P. Shorter & bulkier "Indonesians" arrive.
B.P. "Indonesians" who build houses on stilts appear from three
directions (Formosa, China, and S.E. Asia).
B.P. more "Indos," bringing copper & bronze.
B.P. first "Malays," from Borneo, bringing iron.
B.P. 2nd wave of "Malays," bringing writing.
B.P. arrival of Moslem "Malays."
It should be remarked that the
various "waves of migration" theories are still largely unsubstantiated
and highly controversial. Most modern anthropologists see Beyer's scheme as
rather overblown; nevertheless it is evident that the Philippines have seen
many episodes of large-scale immigration.